This is especially vital when contracts for supply are finalised, as failure to supply could incur large penalties. The EU is now putting very stringent regulations in force on labelling, even to the degree that the pesticides and insecticides used on horticultural produce have to be listed.
However in many agricultural commodities factors like seasonality, perishability and supply and demand have to be taken into consideration.
For example, China has imposed These can include the imposition of a global standardised product where it is inapplicable, for example large horsepower tractors may be totally unsuitable for areas where small scale farming exists and where incomes are low; devolving decisions to affiliated countries which may let quality slip; and the attempt to sell products into a country without cognisance of cultural adaptation needs.
The assumption is that the product will serve the same function in foreign markets under different usage conditions. Budget gross and net prices? These facilities have long been adapted to local conditions.
Production process The key question is, can we ensure continuity of supply? Other aspects of branding include the promotional aspects. Quality, or lack of it, is often the major letdown. Bio-degradable, recyclable, reusable packaging is now the order of the day.
In horticultural produce, the developed countries often demand blister packs for mangetouts, beans, strawberries and so on, whilst for products like pineapples a sea container may suffice. In some cases "foreign made" gives advantage over domestic products. Changes in design are also subject to cultural pressures.
These may be due to climate, skills, level of literacy, culture or physical conditions. Solved February 25, at the corporate level by the Board of Directors and Senior management.
In export the quality standards are set by the importer. Packaging Packaging serves many purposes. As indicated earlier, most developing countries are likely to be exporting raw materials or basic and high value agricultural produce for some time to come.
A good example of this is the Florida tomato growers, cited earlier, who successfully got the US Department of Agriculture to issue regulations establishing a minimum size of tomatoes marketed in the United States. For example, in horticulture, it is essential that any supplier or any of his "outgrower" sub-contractor can supply what he says he can.
Basic concepts A product can be defined as a collection of physical, service and symbolic attributes which yield satisfaction or benefits to a user or buyer. Nagashima1 found the "made in USA" image has lost ground to the "made in Japan" image. This can be both expensive and demanding for many developing countries.
In one example French red apples, well boxed, are sold at 55 dinars per box, whilst not so attractive Iranian greens are sold for 28 dinars per box.
Effects of culture on production decisions have been dealt with already in chapter three. As well as the demands of modem machinery, the lack of standardised measuring and cotton classification procedures has resulted in commercial conflict and legal disputes about the true nature of traded cotton.
Some products and brands benefit from the country-of-origin effect. In sophisticated markets like seeds, the variety and range is so large that constant watch has to be kept on the new strains and varieties in order to be competitive.
Non tariff barriers are an attempt, despite their supposed impartiality, at restricting or eliminating competition. Structure Of The Chapter The chapter starts by examining the basic concepts of the "product" including its physical or objective features and its image or subjective features.
In addition to focus group studies with customers, interdepartmental insights are gathered and considered when refining product prototypes. The strategic alternative s that a particular company chooses will depend on the product and the need it serves, customer preferences and purchasing power, and the costs of adaptation versus standardization.
This involves careful planning because each new product reflects a considerable amount of capital investment. Grading and quality standards: It protects the product from damage which could be incurred in handling and transportation and also has a promotional aspect. The system can handle large numbers of bales, reduce variation in classification and the need for highly trained bate classifiers.
Bibliography Decisions regarding the product, price, promotion and distribution channels are decisions on the elements of the "marketing mix".
Requirements for crate labelling, etc.Factors to Consider When Going Global. Topics: Globalization a company must carefully outline what means for its particular business to go global.
This depends on the industry, product, or service, and the extension at which total success requires an internal condition in different parts of the world.
that when one manager want to. What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions? -A standardized global product platform can offer potential cost savings.
-Customer preferences, costs, country laws and regulations, and environmental compatibility are all noted in the text as factors affecting design decisions. What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions?
A standardized global product platform can offer potential cost savings. Customer preferences, costs, country laws and regulations, and environmental compatibility are all noted in the text as factors affecting design decisions.
Global marketers face the challenge of formulating coherent product and brand strategies on a worldwide basis.
A product can be viewed as a collection of tangible and intangible attributes that collectively provide benefits to a buyer or user. What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions?
A standardized global product platform can offer potential cost savings. This could be due to the lack of cultural knowledge about a target audience. What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions?
rand and Product Decisions in Global Marketing / Pricing Decisions Do discussion questions, andDownload